Analytics in VigiLyze

Analytical methods developed by the UMC Research team are integrated in VigiLyze.

Your questions answered

The following concepts and methods underlie the results that VigiLyze will deliver for your search enquiry.

What is the IC value?

IC stands for “information component”, which is an indicator value for disproportionate reporting when using the method for disproportionality analysis developed by UMC. As with the EBGM, PRR or ROR, this is a way to relate observed and expected values to find drug–adverse effect combinations that have been reported more often than one would expect. These are statistical methods used when mining data in large data sets such as VigiBase. (EBGM = Empirical Bayes Geometric Mean, PRR = Proportional Reporting Ratio, ROR = Reporting Odds Ratio)

IC = log2 ((Nobserved + 0.5)/(Nexpected + 0.5))

where Nexpected = (Ndrug * Nreaction) / Ntotal

Nexpected: the number of case reports expected for the drug-effect combination

Nobserved: the actual number of case reports for the drug-effect combination

Ndrug: the number of case reports for the drug, regardless of effects

Nreaction: the number of case reports for the effect, regardless of drug


Bate A, Lindquist M, Edwards IR, Olsson S, Orre R, Lansner A, De Freitas RM. A Bayesian neural network method for adverse drug reaction signal generation. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1998, 54(4):315-321.

Norén GN, Hopstadius J, Bate A. Shrinkage observed-to-expected ratios for robust and transparent large-scale pattern discovery. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 2013, 22(1):57-69.

What is IC025?

IC025 is the lower end of a 95% credibility interval for the Information Component. A positive IC025 value is the traditional threshold used in statistical signal detection at UMC. IC025 is also used as one component of the disproportionality parameter in the vigiRank method.

What is IC0005?

The lower endpoint of a 99.9% credibility interval for the Information Component, IC0005 is used to support analysis of subgroup-specific associations between substances and effects analogously to how IC025 is used for general analysis of substance-effect associations: a positive value for IC0005 suggests, but does not prove, a causal relation between the substance and the reaction in the subgroup under consideration. The reason that analysis of subgroup-specific associations requires a wider credibility interval than standard analysis is that many more potential associations are investigated; for each drug-reaction pair, one IC value is computed for each age group, for each sex, for each country, and for other variables. This decreases the risk of detecting spurious positive associations.

Hopstadius J, Norén GN. Robust discovery of local patterns: subsets and stratification in adverse drug reaction surveillance. Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium, 2012, 265-274.

What is Nfatal?

The number of ICSRs in a case series for a drug-adverse effect combination that had a fatal outcome. Information from several parts of the ICSR is analysed to determine the fatal outcome of the case: terms that indicate fatality (e.g. “completed suicide); date of death; cause of death or performed autopsy; outcome is fatal; seriousness criterion is death, among others. The processed “fatal value does not define a causal relationship between the patient’s death and the drug or effect.

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Last modified on: September 16, 2020